A test or an examination (or
"exam") is an assessment, often administered on paper or on the
computer, intended to measure the test-taker's or respondent's
(often a student) knowledge, skills, attitudes. Tests are often
used in education, professional certification, counseling,
psychology and many other fields.
The measurement that is the goal of testing is called a test
score and is "a summary of the evidence contained in an
examinee's responses to the items of a test that are related to
the construct or constructs being measured. Test scores are
interpreted with respect to a standard or criterion or occasionally
both. The standard may be established independently or by
statistical analysis of a large number of subjects.
A standardized test is one that is administered and scored in a
consistent matter to ensure legal defensibility.
The basic components of a test are items, which are stored in an
item bank. Items are often colloquially referred to as
"questions," but not every item is phrased as a question; it may
be such things as a true/false statement or a task that must be
performed (in case of a performance test).
An Examination Board is needed to keep control over the exams;
an EB needs Examinations, Rules and Regulations.